Powder metallurgy sintering furnaces are divided into two types: resistance sintering furnaces and induction sintering furnaces. Resistance sintering furnaces are used more often. ; 感应烧结炉是利用电磁感应在金属内激励出电流使其加热的电炉。 The resistance sintering furnace is an electric furnace that converts electrical energy into thermal energy for sintering through electric heating elements ; the induction sintering furnace is an electric furnace that uses electromagnetic induction to excite a current in the metal to heat it.
; 按炉子结构型式，电阻烧结炉分为竖式电阻烧结炉和卧式电阻烧结炉，感应烧结炉亦可分为竖式感应烧结炉和卧式感应烧结炉 ; 按作业性质，电阻烧结炉分为间断式电阻烧结炉和连续式电阻烧结炉，感应烧结炉亦可分为间断式感应烧结炉和连续式感应烧结炉。 According to the atmosphere and vacuum used in the furnace, resistance sintering furnaces are divided into ordinary atmosphere resistance sintering furnaces and vacuum resistance sintering furnaces. Induction sintering furnaces can also be divided into ordinary atmosphere induction sintering furnaces and vacuum induction sintering furnaces ; according to the furnace structure type, resistance sintering Furnace is divided into vertical resistance sintering furnace and horizontal resistance sintering furnace, induction sintering furnace can also be divided into vertical induction sintering furnace and horizontal induction sintering furnace ; according to the nature of operation, resistance sintering furnace is divided into intermittent resistance sintering furnace and continuous Resistance sintering furnace, induction sintering furnace can also be divided into discontinuous induction sintering furnace and continuous induction sintering furnace. (500Hz-10kHz) 和高频感应烧结炉 (70~200kHz) 。 In addition, the induction sintering furnace can be divided into intermediate frequency induction sintering furnace (500Hz-10kHz) and high frequency induction sintering furnace (70 ~ 200kHz) according to the frequency used .
According to the heating method, the resistance sintering furnace is divided into an indirect heating type resistance sintering furnace and a direct heating type resistance sintering furnace. ; 直接加热式电阻烧结炉是指电流由电源通过接头直接流过被加热制品使其加热，例如，用于钨、钼、钽和铌等难熔金属高温烧结的高温垂熔炉便是一种典型的直接加热式电阻烧结炉。 Indirect heating resistance sintering furnace refers to the current through the electric heating element to generate heat, which increases the temperature of the furnace by radiant heat transfer to heat the product ; direct heating resistance sintering furnace refers to the current flowing directly from the power supply through the joint to the heated product. Heating, for example, high temperature vertical melting furnaces for high temperature sintering of refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and niobium is a typical direct heating resistance sintering furnace.
Pressure is required for sintering and there is a pressure sintering furnace. This furnace is mainly used for sintering thin-layer products such as powder metallurgy friction plates. The bell jar furnace is a typical pressure sintering furnace.
Electric heating elements The electric heating elements of the resistance sintering furnace are divided into two categories: metal electric heating elements and non-metal electric heating elements. There are two types of metal electric heating elements: pure metal and alloy. : 铂 ( 最高使用温度 1400 ℃ ) 、钼 ( 最高使用温度 1600 ℃ ) 、钨 ( 最高使用温度 21()()~2500 ℃ ) 、钽 ( 最高使用温度 2500 ℃等 ); 合金电热元件有 : 镍铬系 ( 最高使用温度 1050~1100 ℃ ) 、铁铬铝系 ( 最高使用温度 1300~1400 ℃ ) 。 Pure metal heating elements are : platinum ( maximum use temperature 1400 ℃ ) , molybdenum ( maximum use temperature 1600 ℃ ) , tungsten ( maximum use temperature 21 () () ~ 2500 ℃ ) , tantalum ( maximum use temperature 2500 ℃, etc. ); alloy Electric heating elements are : nickel-chromium series ( maximum use temperature of 1050 ~ 1100 ℃ ) , iron-chromium-aluminum series ( maximum use temperature of 1300 ~ 1400 ℃ ) . : 碳化硅 ( 最高使用温度 1450 ℃ ) 、硅化钼 ( 最高使用温度 1700 ℃ ) 、石墨 ( 最高使用温度 :3000 ℃ ) 等。 Non-metallic heating elements are : silicon carbide ( maximum use temperature of 1450 ℃ ) , molybdenum silicide ( maximum use temperature of 1700 ℃ ) , graphite ( maximum use temperature : 3000 ℃ ) and so on.
Resistance sintering furnaces using metals and alloys as electric heating elements can be divided into molybdenum wire furnaces, tungsten wire furnaces, tungsten rod furnaces, molybdenum sheet furnaces, tantalum sheet furnaces, nickel-chromium wire furnaces, and iron chromium according to the material and shape of the electric heating elements Aluminum wire furnace, etc. The most representative one is the molybdenum wire furnace, which is also widely used. 1 所示，工作温度 1500 ℃，常用来烧结粉末冶金材料和制品，特别是烧结硬质合金。 The structure of a molybdenum wire sintering furnace is shown in Figure 1. The working temperature is 1500 ℃. It is commonly used to sinter powder metallurgical materials and products, especially sintered hard alloys. If vacuum is needed, it can be made into vacuum molybdenum wire furnace, vacuum tungsten rod furnace, etc.